Jürchott, Malte; Oschlies, Andreas; Koeve, Wolfgang. Artificial Upwelling – A New Narrative (October 27, 2022). https://doi.org/10.1002/essoar.10512711.1

Artificial upwelling (AU) is a proposed marine carbon dioxide removal (CDR) method, which suggests deploying pipes in the ocean to pump deep water to the ocean’s surface. This process theoretically has several different impacts on the surface layer, including an increase in the nutrient concentration, as well as a decrease in surface water temperature. Changes in the carbon cycle and associated with biological components are covered by the biological carbon pump, while changes via physical-chemical processes are covered by the solubility pump. Using numerical ocean modeling and simulating almost globally applied AU between the years 2020 and 2100 under several different atmospheric CO2 emission scenarios, we show that AU leads under every simulated emission scenario to an additional CO2 uptake of the ocean, but the potential increases under higher emission scenarios (up to 1.01 Pg C / year under RCP 8.5). The individual contribution via the biological carbon pump is under every emission scenario positive. In contrast, the processes associated with the solubility pump can lead to CO2 uptake under higher emission scenarios and CO2 outgassing under lower emission scenarios.