Question & answers

Carbon dioxide removal (CDR) is a set of technologies and methods used to remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere to mitigate or reverse the effects of climate change. CDR is achieved through various methods such as afforestation, reforestation, soil carbon sequestration, ocean fertilization, and direct air capture. These technologies aim to remove CO2 from the atmosphere and store it safely and securely in solid, liquid, or gas. Some methods are already in use but have yet to move beyond the research and development stage. Natural CDR takes advantage of existing biology, such as growing trees that convert CO2 into wood. Our CO2 conversion also takes advantage of biology, but in the ocean, converting CO2 to fish food.

Because it traps heat in the atmosphere, carbon dioxide—a greenhouse gas—contributes to global warming and climate change. The release of CO2 into the atmosphere caused by burning fossil fuels, deforestation, and other human activities has significantly raised global temperatures, sea levels, and the frequency and severity of extreme weather. CDR is needed to reduce the levels of CO2 in the atmosphere and oceans to slow or reverse the effects of climate change. Without significant CDR, global temperatures will likely continue to rise, leading to more severe and destructive impacts on the environment and human society.

Trees need land, water, and fertilizer to grow – and too often, they die off or burn down, reversing the CO2 conversion process. Also, tree growth is too slow to be an effective strategy as we have run out of time to counteract global warming. Phytoplankton, on the other hand, doubles in mass every 24 hours.

Ocean Upwelling (also known as Artificial Upwelling) refers to technologies transporting deep, nutrient-rich ocean water from the twilight zone (200 to 1000 meters deep) to the sunlit surface zone. This triggers a biological response known as photosynthesis – growing phytoplankton, the main food supply for fish and all other ocean species – dolphins, sea turtles, sharks, whales, and even sea birds.

Phytoplankton are eaten, digested, and excreted as natural waste that sinks. Tiny bacteria and microbes consume most of the phytoplankton, and the remainder sinks to the bottom of the ocean. The White Cliffs of Dover in England are an example.

Thus, by converting CO2 to ocean fish food and boosting fish populations, we accelerate this process of transferring CO2 into the deep ocean and seafloor.

The oceans make up 71% of Earth’s surface and absorb 93% of the world’s heat. We don’t live on a green and brown planet; we live on a blue planet. For the past 2.6 billion years, the oceans have been converting CO2 to ocean fish food through the process of photosynthesis.

Our technology converts CO2 emissions into ocean fish food (phytoplankton) through ocean photosynthesis. This phytoplankton, which can double in mass every 24 hours, feeds plankton and bigger fish (up to birds and whales!). Afterward, these marine animals poop or die, and this is marine snow that sinks to the bottom of the ocean and remains there for thousands or millions of years.

Ocean upwelling also cools the surface ocean, helping reverse warming and mitigating the damage already done to ocean life.

Some of the world’s most fertile ocean ecosystems are due to upwelling. For example, Peru’s upwelling creates one of the most productive fishing grounds in the world.

Our technology needs only wave and solar energy to operate and ocean waters greater than 1000 meters deep. Our technology can convert CO2 to ocean fish food in any of the ocean gyres.

Our technology can be deployed in regions accounting for 65% of the ocean’s surface, preferably far from shore, to avoid interference with recreational boating and local fishing.